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Immunol Rev. 2016 Sep;273(1):219-31. doi: 10.1111/imr.12438.

Chloride flux in phagocytes.

Author information

1
Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Genetics and Medicine, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Abstract

Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

KEYWORDS:

NADPH oxidase; chloride; hypochlorous acic; monocytes/macrophages; neutrophils; oxidants

PMID:
27558337
DOI:
10.1111/imr.12438
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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