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Wien Med Wochenschr. 2016 Oct;166(13-14):411-423. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Iron deficiency or anemia of inflammation? : Differential diagnosis and mechanisms of anemia of inflammation.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine VI, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Rheumatology, Pneumology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. manfred.nairz@i-med.ac.at.
2
Department of Internal Medicine VI, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Rheumatology, Pneumology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
3
Medical Clinic III, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Rheumatology, University Clinic Bonn (UKB), Bonn, Germany.
4
Department of Internal Medicine VI, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Rheumatology, Pneumology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. guenter.weiss@i-med.ac.at.

Abstract

Iron deficiency and immune activation are the two most frequent causes of anemia, both of which are based on disturbances of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency anemia results from a reduction of the body's iron content due to blood loss, inadequate dietary iron intake, its malabsorption, or increased iron demand. Immune activation drives a diversion of iron fluxes from the erythropoietic bone marrow, where hemoglobinization takes place, to storage sites, particularly the mononuclear phagocytes system in liver and spleen. This results in iron-limited erythropoiesis and anemia. This review summarizes current diagnostic and pathophysiological concepts of iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, as well as combined conditions, and provides a brief outlook on novel therapeutic options.

KEYWORDS:

Anemia of chronic disease; Anemia of inflammation; Hepcidin; Iron; Macrophage

PMID:
27557596
PMCID:
PMC5065583
DOI:
10.1007/s10354-016-0505-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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