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Food Microbiol. 2016 Dec;60:73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

Metagenomic analysis of fungal diversity in Korean traditional wheat-based fermentation starter nuruk.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea; Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea.
2
Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agrofood Resource, NAAS, RDA, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk-do 570-749, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea; Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: dhkim@jbnu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Nuruk, a traditional natural starter, is extensively used in the brewing of Makgeolli, one of Korea's most popular alcoholic beverages that has been recently gaining global popularity. Thus, the quality of traditional nuruk needs to be enhanced. The nuruk mycobiome greatly influences both fermentation process as well as palatability enhancement. Limitations of culture-dependent identification restrict an accurate analysis of fungal diversity and distribution in nuruks. 454 pyrosequencing of two traditional wheat-based nuruks, prepared at two representative temperature conditions revealed a total of 153 and 53 OTUs for nuruks A and B, respectively, from a total of 33,157 ITS sequences. Phylogenetic assignments indicated that nuruk A mycobiota was dominated by the genera Aspergillus and Mucorales, whereas nuruk B by Rhizomucor. Species-level identification indicated that Mucorales sp., Aspergillus candidus, and Aspergillus cibarius predominated in nuruk A mycoflora whereas Rhizomucor pusillus, Mucorales sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus in nuruk B. The alpha diversity indices suggest nuruk A mycobiota to be more diverse than that of nuruk B at almost all time points of fermentation. Resemblances of patterns of predominant species composition and succession between culture-dependent and -independent phylogenetic analysis creates the potential to reconstruct the nuruk mycobiome in vitro, which allows the establishment of a standard inoculum for scientific comparison.

KEYWORDS:

Aspergillus; Fermentation starter; Mycoflora; Nuruk; Pyrosequencing; Rhizomucor

PMID:
27554148
DOI:
10.1016/j.fm.2016.07.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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