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Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 Aug 23;16(9):566-81. doi: 10.1038/nrc.2016.97.

Engineered T cells: the promise and challenges of cancer immunotherapy.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-5156, USA.

Abstract

The immune system evolved to distinguish non-self from self to protect the organism. As cancer is derived from our own cells, immune responses to dysregulated cell growth present a unique challenge. This is compounded by mechanisms of immune evasion and immunosuppression that develop in the tumour microenvironment. The modern genetic toolbox enables the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to create enhanced anticancer immune functions where natural cancer-specific immune responses have failed. Genetically engineered T cells, so-called 'living drugs', represent a new paradigm in anticancer therapy. Recent clinical trials using T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) have produced stunning results in patients with relapsed or refractory haematological malignancies. In this Review we describe some of the most recent and promising advances in engineered T cell therapy with a particular emphasis on what the next generation of T cell therapy is likely to entail.

PMID:
27550819
PMCID:
PMC5543811
DOI:
10.1038/nrc.2016.97
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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