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Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2017 Jan;12(1):91-98. doi: 10.1007/s11548-016-1463-7. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

A predictive bone drilling force model for haptic rendering with experimental validation using fresh cadaveric bone.

Author information

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing and Life Quality Engineering, Shanghai, 200240, China.
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Rd, Shanghai, 200003, China.
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.
4
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Rd, Shanghai, 200003, China. yuanwenspine@163.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Bone drilling simulators with virtual and haptic feedback provide a safe, cost-effective and repeatable alternative to traditional surgical training methods. To develop such a simulator, accurate haptic rendering based on a force model is required to feedback bone drilling forces based on user input. Current predictive bone drilling force models based on bovine bones with various drilling conditions and parameters are not representative of the bone drilling process in bone surgery. The objective of this study was to provide a bone drilling force model for haptic rendering based on calibration and validation experiments in fresh cadaveric bones with different bone densities.

METHODS:

Using a commonly used drill bit geometry (2 mm diameter), feed rates (20-60 mm/min) and spindle speeds (4000-6000 rpm) in orthognathic surgeries, the bone drilling forces of specimens from two groups were measured and the calibration coefficients of the specific normal and frictional pressures were determined.

RESULTS:

The comparison of the predicted forces and the measured forces from validation experiments with a large range of feed rates and spindle speeds demonstrates that the proposed bone drilling forces can predict the trends and average forces well.

CONCLUSION:

The presented bone drilling force model can be used for haptic rendering in surgical simulators.

KEYWORDS:

Bone drilling; Force model; Haptic rendering; Surgical simulator

PMID:
27549761
DOI:
10.1007/s11548-016-1463-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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