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Int J Prison Health. 2016 Sep 12;12(3):135-44. doi: 10.1108/IJPH-04-2016-0010.

The association of recent incarceration and health outcomes among HIV-infected adults receiving care in the United States.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.


Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe factors associated with incarceration as well as the association between recent incarceration and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, access to insurance, healthcare utilization (emergency department (ED) and hospital use), antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and viral suppression. Design/methodology/approach Using 2009-2010 data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative three-stage sample of HIV-infected adults receiving care in the USA, the authors assessed the demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected persons who had been recently incarcerated (detention for>24 hours in the past year) using bivariate analyses. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of recent incarceration with insurance status as well as clinical and behavioral outcomes. Findings An estimated 22,949 (95 percent confidence interval (CI) 19,062-26,836) or 5.4 percent (CI: 4.7-6.1) of all HIV-infected persons receiving care were recently incarcerated. Factors associated with recent incarceration were age <50 years, being a smoker, having high school diploma or less, being homeless, income at or below the poverty guidelines, having a geometric mean of CD4 count <500 cells/ μL, and using drugs in the past 12 months. Results from multivariable modeling indicated that incarcerated persons were more likely to use ED services, and to have been hospitalized, and less likely to have achieved viral suppression. Originality/value Recent incarceration independently predicted worse health outcomes and greater use of emergency services among HIV-infected adults currently in HIV care. Options to improve the HIV continuum of care, including pre-enrollment for healthcare coverage and discharge planning, may lead to better health outcomes for HIV-infected inmates post-release.


Correctional healthcare; HIV; HIV/AIDS; Health in prison; Infectious disease; Public health

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