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World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Aug 7;22(29):6565-72. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i29.6565.

Prediction and prophylaxis of hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence and postoperative recurrence in chronic hepatitis B virus-infected subjects.

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Yan Du, Office of Clinical Epidemiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011, China.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and highly fatal malignancies worldwide. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of HCC. High HBV replication rate and related non-resolving inflammation are the major risk factors of HCC occurrence and postoperative recurrence. Early prophylactic options are effective in reducing HCC occurrence and improving survival. Therefore, it is important to identify HBV-infected patients who are at a higher risk of developing HCC and HBV-HCC patients who are more likely to relapse after surgery, thus providing them with more precise prophylactic strategies. Several prediction models of HCC occurrence have been constructed, with satisfactory predictive accuracy and discriminatory ability. However, there is a lack of consensus for their clinical implementation. Several staging systems have been proposed for HCC prognosis. However, the accuracy of these staging systems based on demographic characteristics and clinical measurements needs to be further improved, possibly by systematically incorporating viral and inflammatory factors. Since antiviral treatments are effective in promoting liver function reserve, reducing HCC occurrence and prolonging postoperative survival in some HBV-infected subjects, it is very important to identify subgroups of HBV-infected patients who would most benefit from antiviral treatment.


Chronic hepatitis B; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Incidence; Prediction; Prognosis

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