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Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2017 Apr;14(4):491-498. doi: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1222371. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Parachuting: a dangerous trend in recreational psychoactive substance delivery.

Author information

a Poison Control Center , Angers University Hospital , Angers , France.
b EA 4275, SPHERE, Methods for Patients-centered outcomes and Health Research , Nantes University Hospital , Nantes , France.
c Addictology and Psychiatry Department , Nantes University Hospital , Nantes , France.
d Pharmacology Department - Addictovigilance , Nantes University Hospital , Nantes , France.
e Pharmacology Department , Bordeaux University Hospital , Bordeaux , France.
f Pharmacology Department - Laboratory , Angers University Hospital , Angers , France.


Medicine diversion for recreational use is a constant concern for health authorities. Parachuting, also refered to as bombing, is used in order to increase the expected effect, to accelerate time-to-onset and to create mixtures of medicines and substances. Aeras covered: Firstly, we analyzed all available scientific literature (PRISMA) and internet forums without any limiting timeframe. Secondly, we collected cases of parachuting reported in the west of France by the addictovigilance and poison control centres. Our study confirms the reality of this emerging issue associated with a higher medical risk (60% of intoxication cases were moderate-to-severe in our study). The substances involved in parachuting were primarily stimulants, with a majority of MDMA, although the use of diverted medication and psychotropes is also of concern. Expert opinion: Parachuting is a dangerous way of using substances and of diverting medicines. This type of administration gives users a certain pharmacokinetic latitude to 'play' with respect to substances and medicines. Medicine abuse deterrent formulations do not seem to be sufficient in preventing diversions. This dangerous method of using substances and of diverting medicines should drive pharmaceutical companies to innovate in the interest of public health and safety.


Parachuting; abuse; bombing; diversion; drug formulation; tampering

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