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J Pediatr. 2016 Nov;178:171-177. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.07.025. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Endothelial Function in Youth: A Biomarker Modulated by Adiposity-Related Insulin Resistance.

Author information

1
US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
2
Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
3
US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address: fbacha@bcm.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the physical and metabolic determinants of endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in normal weight and overweight adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

STUDY DESIGN:

A cross-sectional study of 81 adolescents: 21 normal weight, 25 overweight with normal glucose tolerance, 19 overweight with impaired glucose regulation, and 16 with type 2 diabetes mellitus underwent evaluation of reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIx) at heart rate 75 bpm by peripheral arterial tonometry; oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to measure insulin sensitivity; and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging for percentage of body fat and abdominal fat partitioning.

RESULTS:

Participants across tertiles of RHI (1.2 ± 0.02, 1.5 ± 0.02, and 2.0 ± 0.05, P < .001) had similar age, sex, race, lipid profile, and blood pressure. Body mass index z-score, percentage body fat, abdominal fat, and hemoglobin A1c decreased, and insulin sensitivity increased from the first to third tertile. RHI was inversely related to percentage body fat (r = -0.29, P = .008), total (r = -0.37, P = .004), subcutaneous (r = -0.39, P = .003), and visceral (r = -0.26, P = .04) abdominal fat. AIx at heart rate 75 bpm was higher (worse) in the lower RHI tertiles (P = .04), was positively related to percentage body fat (r = 0.26, P = .021), and inversely related to age, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibition-1).

CONCLUSIONS:

Childhood obesity, particularly abdominal adiposity, is associated with endothelial dysfunction manifested by worse reactive hyperemia and higher AIx. Insulin resistance appears to mediate this relationship.

KEYWORDS:

endothelial function; inflammatory markers; insulin resistance

PMID:
27546204
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.07.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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