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Andrologia. 2017 Jun;49(5). doi: 10.1111/and.12651. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

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Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg-1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO2 (5 g kg-1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO2 gavage. TiO2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T3 and T4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO2 toxicity.


Androgen receptors; immune histochemistry; quantitative real-time PCR; seminal vesicles; thyroid hormones; titanium dioxide

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