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J Biomech. 2016 Oct 3;49(14):3223-3229. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.009. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

The roles of architecture and estrogen depletion in microdamage risk in trabecular bone.

Author information

1
Tissue Mechanics Laboratory, Bioengineering Graduate Program, 147 Multidisciplinary Engineering Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame 46556, IN, USA.
2
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
3
Tissue Mechanics Laboratory, Bioengineering Graduate Program, 147 Multidisciplinary Engineering Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame 46556, IN, USA. Electronic address: gniebur@nd.edu.

Abstract

Bone quantity, or density, has insufficient power to discriminate fracture risk in individuals. Additional measures of bone quality, such as microarchitectural characteristics and bone tissue properties, including the presence of damage, may improve the diagnosis of fracture risk. Microdamage and microarchitecture are two aspects of trabecular bone quality that are interdependent, with several microarchitectural changes strongly correlated to damage risk after compensating for bone density. This study aimed to delineate the effects of microarchitecture and estrogen depletion on microdamage susceptibility in trabecular bone using an ovariectomized sheep model to mimic post-menopausal osteoporosis. The propensity for microdamage formation in trabecular bone of the distal femur was studied using a sequence of compressive and torsional overloads. Ovariectomy had only minor effects on the microarchitecture at this anatomic site. Microdamage was correlated to bone volume fraction and structure model index (SMI), and ovariectomy increased the sensitivity to these parameters. The latter may be due to either increased resorption cavities acting as stress concentrations or to altered bone tissue properties. Pre-existing damage was also correlated to new damage formation. However, sequential loading primarily generated new cracks as opposed to propagating existing cracks, suggesting that pre-existing microdamage contributes to further damage of bone by shifting load bearing to previously undamaged trabeculae, which are subsequently damaged. The transition from plate-like to rod-like trabeculae, indicated by SMI, dictates this shift, and may be a hallmark of bone that is already predisposed to accruing greater levels of damage through compromised microarchitecture.

KEYWORDS:

Animal model; Microdamage; Ovariectomy; Trabecular bone

PMID:
27544617
PMCID:
PMC5074893
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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