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J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Dec;75(6):1134-1141.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.06.060. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Adult female acne and associated risk factors: Results of a multicenter case-control study in Italy.

Author information

1
Study Center of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED), Bergamo, Italy; Dermatology Unit, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.
2
Study Center of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED), Bergamo, Italy; Department of Dermatology, Inselspital University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
3
Dermatology Unit, G. Rummo Hospital, Benevento, Italy.
4
Dermatology Unit, S. Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
5
Dermatology Unit, S. Stefano Hospital, Prato, Italy.
6
Dermatology Clinic, University of Catania, P.O. "G. Rodolico," A.O.U. Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy.
7
Dermatology Unit, Department of Specialistic, Diagnostic and Experimental Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
8
Section of Dermatology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, S. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy.
9
Dermatology Unit, Istituti Ospitalieri Hospital, Cremona, Italy.
10
Rare Diseases Dermatology and Cutaneous Immunopathology, UO Dermatology I ASF-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
11
Pediatric Dermatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
12
Dermatology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
13
Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Health Local Unit, Taranto, Italy.
14
Study Center of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED), Bergamo, Italy; Dermatology Unit, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. Electronic address: luigi.naldi@gised.it.
15
Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology Acne Study Group.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The reasons for the appearance of acne in adulthood are largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

We explored the role of personal and environmental factors in adult female acne.

METHODS:

We conducted a multicenter case-control study in the outpatient departments of 12 Italian cities. Cases (n = 248) were consecutive women ≥25 years of age with newly diagnosed acne of any grade. Controls (n = 270) were females diagnosed with conditions other than acne.

RESULTS:

In multivariate analysis, a history of acne in parents (odds ratio [OR] = 3.02) or siblings (OR = 2.40), history of acne during adolescence (OR = 5.44), having no previous pregnancies (OR = 1.71), having hirsutism (OR = 3.50), being an office worker versus being unemployed or being a housewife (OR = 2.24), and having a high level of reported psychological stress (OR = 2.95) were all associated with acne. A low weekly intake of fruits or vegetables (OR = 2.33) and low consumption of fresh fish (OR = 2.76) were also associated with acne.

LIMITATIONS:

We did not establish an onset date for acne. Some of our associations may reflect consequences of established acne.

CONCLUSION:

Lifestyle factors may play an important role for acne development in adulthood, but their role should be further assessed in prospective studies.

KEYWORDS:

adult female acne; case-control study; diet; family history; risk factors; stress

PMID:
27542588
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaad.2016.06.060
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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