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J Cyst Fibros. 2017 Jan;16(1):91-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2016.07.011. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

Cancer risk among lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis.

Author information

  • 1Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:
  • 2Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
  • 3Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Bethesda, MD, USA.
  • 4Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
  • 6New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA.
  • 7Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Lansing, MI, USA.



Previous studies demonstrated increased digestive tract cancers among individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly among lung transplant recipients. We describe cancer incidence among CF and non-CF lung recipients.


We used data from the US transplant registry and 16 cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared cancer incidence to the general population, and competing risk methods were used for the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer.


We evaluated 10,179 lung recipients (1681 with CF). Risk was more strongly increased in CF recipients than non-CF recipients for overall cancer (SIR 9.9 vs. 2.7) and multiple cancers including colorectal cancer (24.2 vs. 1.7), esophageal cancer (56.3 vs. 1.3), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (61.8 vs. 9.4). At five years post-transplant, colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 0.3% of CF recipients aged <50 at transplant and 6.4% aged ≥50.


CF recipients have increased risk for colorectal cancer, suggesting a need for enhanced screening.


Cancer; Transplant

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