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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Aug 23;68(8):818-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.06.011.

Potential Impact of Time Trend of Life-Style Factors on Cardiovascular Disease Burden in China.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
3
Department of Nutrition Surveillance, National Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
4
Yale/Yale-New Haven Hospital, Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Masssachusetts. Electronic address: frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in China. Evaluation of risk factors and their impacts on disease burden is important for future public health initiatives and policy making.

OBJECTIVES:

The study used data from a cohort of the China Health and Nutrition Survey to estimate time trends in cardiovascular risk factors from 1991 to 2011.

METHODS:

We applied the comparative risk assessment method to estimate the number of CVD events attributable to all nonoptimal levels (e.g., theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution [TMRED]) of each risk factor.

RESULTS:

In 2011, high blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood glucose were associated with 3.1, 1.4, and 0.9 million CVD events in China, respectively. Increase in body mass index was associated with an increase in attributable CVD events, from 0.5 to 1.1 million between 1991 and 2011, whereas decreased physical activity was associated with a 0.7-million increase in attributable CVD events. In 2011, 53.4% of men used tobacco, estimated to be responsible for 30.1% of CVD burden in men. Dietary quality improved, but remained suboptimal; mean intakes were 5.4 (TMRED: 2.0) g/day for sodium, 67.7 (TMRED: 300.0) g/day for fruits, 6.2 (TMRED: 114.0) g/day for nuts, and 25.0 (TMRED: 250.0) mg/day for marine omega-3 fatty acids in 2011.

CONCLUSIONS:

High blood pressure remains the most important individual risk factor related to CVD burden in China. Increased body mass index and decreased physical activity were also associated with the increase in CVD burden from 1991 to 2011. High rates of tobacco use in men and unhealthy dietary factors continue to contribute to the burden of CVD in China.

KEYWORDS:

China; cardiovascular disease; disease burden; preventable; risk factor

PMID:
27539174
PMCID:
PMC5850940
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2016.06.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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