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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;920:185-90. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-33943-6_17.

Metalloproteinase Changes in Diabetes.

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Department of Morphology, Biosciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.
Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a group of over 20 structurally-related proteins which include a Zn(++) ion binding site that is essential for their proteolytic activities. These enzymes play important role in extracellular matrix turnover in order to maintain a proper balance in its synthesis and degradation. MMPs are associated to several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanisms of DM and its complications is subject of intense research and evidence suggests that MMPs are implicated with the development and progression of diabetic microvascular complications such as nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Recent data has associated DM to changes in the tendon structure, including abnormalities in fiber structure and organization, increased tendon thickness, volume and disorganization obtained by image and a tendency of impairing biomechanical properties. Although not fully elucidated, it is believed that DM-induced MMP dysregulation may contribute to structural and biomechanical alterations and impaired process of tendon healing.


Diabetic alterations; Extracellular matrix; MMPs; Tendon

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