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Atten Percept Psychophys. 2016 Nov;78(8):2633-2654.

Implicit object naming in visual search: Evidence from phonological competition.

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Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871104, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1104, USA.
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA.
Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871104, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1104, USA.


During visual search, people are distracted by objects that visually resemble search targets; search is impaired when targets and distractors share overlapping features. In this study, we examined whether a nonvisual form of similarity, overlapping object names, can also affect search performance. In three experiments, people searched for images of real-world objects (e.g., a beetle) among items whose names either all shared the same phonological onset (/bi/), or were phonologically varied. Participants either searched for 1 or 3 potential targets per trial, with search targets designated either visually or verbally. We examined standard visual search (Experiments 1 and 3) and a self-paced serial search task wherein participants manually rejected each distractor (Experiment 2). We hypothesized that people would maintain visual templates when searching for single targets, but would rely more on object names when searching for multiple items and when targets were verbally cued. This reliance on target names would make performance susceptible to interference from similar-sounding distractors. Experiments 1 and 2 showed the predicted interference effect in conditions with high memory load and verbal cues. In Experiment 3, eye-movement results showed that phonological interference resulted from small increases in dwell time to all distractors. The results suggest that distractor names are implicitly activated during search, slowing attention disengagement when targets and distractors share similar names.


Eye movements; Multiple-target search; Phonological competitors; Visual search

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