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Front Hum Neurosci. 2016 Jul 29;10:390. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00390. eCollection 2016.

Effects of Stimulus-Driven and Goal-Directed Attention on Prepulse Inhibition of Brain Oscillations.

Author information

1
University of Lille, INSERM U1171 - Degenerative and Vascular Cognitive DisordersLille, France; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lille University Medical CenterLille, France.
2
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lille University Medical Center Lille, France.
3
University of Lille, INSERM U1171 - Degenerative and Vascular Cognitive Disorders Lille, France.
4
University of Lille, INSERM U1171 - Degenerative and Vascular Cognitive DisordersLille, France; Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, Lille University Medical CenterLille, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensory gating. PPI of cortical response to a startling pulse is known to be modulated by attention. With a time-frequency analysis, we sought to determine whether goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention differentially modulate inhibition of cortical oscillations elicited by a startling pulse.

METHODS:

An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 26 healthy controls performing an active acoustic PPI paradigm. Startling stimuli were presented alone or either 400 or 1000 ms after one of three types of visual prepulse: to-be-attended (goal-directed attention), unexpected (stimulus-driven attention) or to-be-ignored (non-focused attention). We calculated the percentage PPI for the auditory event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) of theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz) oscillations and changes in inter-trial coherence (ITC), a measure of phase synchronization of electroencephalographic activity.

RESULTS:

At 400 ms: (i) PPI of the ERSP of alpha, theta and beta1 oscillation was greater after an unexpected and a to-be-attended prepulse than after a to-be-ignored prepulse; and (ii) PPI of beta2 oscillations was greater after a to-be-attended than a to-be-ignored prepulse. At 1000 ms: (i) PPI of alpha oscillations was greater after an unexpected and a to-be-attended prepulse than after a to-be-ignored prepulse; and (ii) PPI of beta1 oscillations was greater after a to-be-attended than a to-be-ignored prepulse. The ITC values did not vary according to the type of prepulse.

CONCLUSIONS:

In an active PPI paradigm, stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention each have differential effects on the modulation of cortical oscillations.

KEYWORDS:

attention; brain oscillations; continuous performance test; prepulse inhibition; time-frequency analysis

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