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Patient Prefer Adherence. 2016 Jul 22;10:1299-307. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S106821. eCollection 2016.

Poor medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: recognizing the scope of the problem and its key contributors.

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Behavioral Diabetes Institute, San Diego; University of California, San Diego.
University of California, San Diego; Center for Metabolic Research, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.


At least 45% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) fail to achieve adequate glycemic control (HbA1c <7%). One of the major contributing factors is poor medication adherence. Poor medication adherence in T2D is well documented to be very common and is associated with inadequate glycemic control; increased morbidity and mortality; and increased costs of outpatient care, emergency room visits, hospitalization, and managing complications of diabetes. Poor medication adherence is linked to key nonpatient factors (eg, lack of integrated care in many health care systems and clinical inertia among health care professionals), patient demographic factors (eg, young age, low education level, and low income level), critical patient beliefs about their medications (eg, perceived treatment inefficacy), and perceived patient burden regarding obtaining and taking their medications (eg, treatment complexity, out-of-pocket costs, and hypoglycemia). Specific barriers to medication adherence in T2D, especially those that are potentially modifiable, need to be more clearly identified; strategies that target poor adherence should focus on reducing medication burden and addressing negative medication beliefs of patients. Solutions to these problems would require behavioral innovations as well as new methods and modes of drug delivery.


HbA1c; glycemic control; hypoglycemia; medication adherence; psychosocial; type 2 diabetes

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