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Cell Rep. 2016 Aug 23;16(8):2077-2086. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.07.046. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Structure of Gremlin-2 in Complex with GDF5 Gives Insight into DAN-Family-Mediated BMP Antagonism.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
2
Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
3
Department of Haematology, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England.
4
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA. Electronic address: tom.thompson@uc.edu.

Abstract

The DAN family, including Gremlin-1 and Gremlin-2 (Grem1 and Grem2), represents a large family of secreted BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) antagonists. However, how DAN proteins specifically inhibit BMP signaling has remained elusive. Here, we report the structure of Grem2 bound to GDF5 at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals two Grem2 dimers binding perpendicularly to each GDF5 monomer, resembling an H-like structure. Comparison to the unbound Grem2 structure reveals a dynamic N terminus that undergoes significant transition upon complex formation, leading to simultaneous interaction with the type I and type II receptor motifs on GDF5. Binding studies show that DAN-family members can interact with BMP-type I receptor complexes, whereas Noggin outcompetes the type I receptor for ligand binding. Interestingly, Grem2-GDF5 forms a stable aggregate-like structure in vitro that is not clearly observed for other antagonists, including Noggin and Follistatin. These findings exemplify the structural and functional diversity across the various BMP antagonist families.

PMID:
27524626
PMCID:
PMC5001929
DOI:
10.1016/j.celrep.2016.07.046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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