Send to

Choose Destination
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2016 Dec;52(6):832-840. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2016.07.007. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Different Phenotyping Approaches Lead to Dissimilar Biologic Profiles in Men With Chronic Fatigue After Radiation Therapy.

Author information

National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.
National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:



Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) persists months after treatment completion. Although a CRF biomarker has not yet been identified, validated self-report questionnaires are used to define and phenotype CRF in the discovery of potential biomarkers.


The purposes of this study are to identify CRF subjects using three well-known CRF phenotyping approaches using validated self-report questionnaires and to compare the biologic profiles that are associated with each CRF phenotype.


Fatigue in men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy was measured at baseline (T1), midpoint (T2), end point (T3), and one-year post-external beam radiation therapy (T4) using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) and nonfatigue subjects were grouped based on three commonly used phenotyping approaches: 1) T4 FACT-F <43; 2) T1-T4 decline in FACT-F score ≥3 points; 3) T4 Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Fatigue T-score >50. Differential gene expressions using whole-genome microarray analysis were compared in each of the phenotyping criterion.


The study enrolled 43 men, where 34%-38% had CF based on the three phenotyping approaches. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CF and nonfatigue subjects in each of the three CRF phenotyping approaches: 1) Approach 1 had the largest number of differentially expressed genes and 2) Approaches 2 and 3 had 40 and 21 differentially expressed genes between the fatigue groups, respectively.


The variation in genetic profiles for CRF suggests that phenotypic profiling for CRF should be carefully considered because it directly influences biomarker discovery investigations.


Cancer-related fatigue; fatigue phenotypes; prostate cancer; radiation therapy; transcriptome profiles

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center