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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;45(3):689-718. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2016.04.017.

Energy and Nutrient Timing for Weight Control: Does Timing of Ingestion Matter?

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, PO Box 3995, Atlanta, GA 30302-3995, USA. Electronic address: mmccrory@gsu.edu.
2
Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, PO Box 3995, Atlanta, GA 30302-3995, USA.

Abstract

Over the past 40 years, meal skipping and snacking in US adults have increased, and currently most eating occasions occur later in the day than previously. Whether these changes have played a causal role in the obesity epidemic is poorly understood. Observational studies are largely inconclusive due to methodological limitations. Experimental evidence does not support a causal role for eating frequency or breakfast skipping in weight control. Emerging evidence suggests that eating irregularity and eating later in the day may be detrimental for weight control, but more studies are needed. This article summarizes studies and highlights areas needing attention.

KEYWORDS:

Breakfast skipping; Eating frequency; Eating pattern; Irregular eating; Meal pattern; Meals; Reported energy intake plausibility; Snacks

PMID:
27519140
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecl.2016.04.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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