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Science. 2016 Aug 12;353(6300):669-73. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf2468.

Laser spectroscopy of muonic deuterium.

Author information

1
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany. pohl@uni-mainz.de.
2
Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Collège de France, 75005 Paris, France.
3
LIBPhys, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra, Portugal.
4
I3N, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
5
Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8121, USA.
6
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany.
7
Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. Dausinger + Giesen GmbH, Rotebühlstrasse 87, 70178 Stuttgart, Germany.
8
Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
9
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.
10
Département de Physique, Université de Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.
11
Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
12
Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.
13
LIBPhys, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra, Portugal. Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, 3030-199, Portugal.
14
Département de Physique, Université de Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany. I3N, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
15
Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1009, USA.
16
Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Dausinger + Giesen GmbH, Rotebühlstrasse 87, 70178 Stuttgart, Germany. Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.
17
Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.
18
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany. Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.

Abstract

The deuteron is the simplest compound nucleus, composed of one proton and one neutron. Deuteron properties such as the root-mean-square charge radius rd and the polarizability serve as important benchmarks for understanding the nuclear forces and structure. Muonic deuterium μd is the exotic atom formed by a deuteron and a negative muon μ(-). We measured three 2S-2P transitions in μd and obtain r(d) = 2.12562(78) fm, which is 2.7 times more accurate but 7.5σ smaller than the CODATA-2010 value r(d) = 2.1424(21) fm. The μd value is also 3.5σ smaller than the r(d) value from electronic deuterium spectroscopy. The smaller r(d), when combined with the electronic isotope shift, yields a "small" proton radius r(p), similar to the one from muonic hydrogen, amplifying the proton radius puzzle.

PMID:
27516595
DOI:
10.1126/science.aaf2468
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