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Obstet Med. 2014 Dec;7(4):140-6. doi: 10.1177/1753495X14552719. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention.

Author information

1
Virology Division, SEALS Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
2
Virology Division, SEALS Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia; School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
3
Virology Division, SEALS Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
4
Maternal Fetal Medicine, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, Australia.
5
Virology Division, SEALS Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus is the most common congenital infection causing serious disease in infants. It is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Despite the clinical importance of congenital cytomegalovirus, surveys show there is limited awareness and knowledge in the medical and general community about congenital cytomegalovirus infection. This article reviews the clinical features, global epidemiology, transmission and risk factors for cytomegalovirus infections. It also highlights several major advances made in recent years in the diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Although research is ongoing, no therapy is currently proven to prevent or treat maternal, fetal or neonatal cytomegalovirus infection. Education of women regarding hygiene measures can help prevent cytomegalovirus infection and are currently the best strategy to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus disease.

KEYWORDS:

Infection; infectious diseases; maternal–fetal medicine; neonatal medicine

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