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J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2016 Jul-Sep;9(3):115-21. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.185275.

Assessment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices in emergency departments for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims in Lebanon.

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Department of Nursing, Hariri School of Nursing, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
Division of Cardiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.



The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims in Lebanon is low. A national policy on resuscitation practice is lacking. This survey explored the practices of emergency physicians related to the resuscitation of OHCA victims in Lebanon.


A sample of 705 physicians working in emergency departments (EDs) was recruited and surveyed using the LimeSurvey software (Carsten Schmitz, Germany). Seventy-five participants responded, yielding 10.64% response rate.


The most important factors in the participants' decision to initiate or continue resuscitation were presence of pulse on arrival (93.2%), underlying cardiac rhythm (93.1%), the physician's ethical duty to resuscitate (93.2%), transport time to the ED (89%), and down time (84.9%). The participants were optimistic regarding the survival of OHCA victims (58.1% reporting > 10% survival) and reported frequent resuscitation attempts in medically futile situations. The most frequently reported challenges during resuscitation decisions were related to pressure or presence of victim's family (38.8%) and lack of policy (30%).


In our setting, physicians often rely on well-established criteria for initiating/continuing resuscitation; however, their decisions are also influenced by cultural factors such as victim's family wishes. The findings support the need for a national policy on resuscitation of OHCA victims.


Emergency department; Lebanon; out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; practices; resuscitation

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