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FASEB J. 2016 Nov;30(11):3887-3900. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Ticagrelor regulates osteoblast and osteoclast function and promotes bone formation in vivo via an adenosine-dependent mechanism.

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Bone and Joint Research Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Division of Translational Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University (NYU)-Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, NYU College of Dentistry, New York, New York, USA; and.
AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicine Unit, Translational Sciences, Mölndal, Sweden.


As many as 10% of bone fractures heal poorly, and large bone defects resulting from trauma, tumor, or infection may not heal without surgical intervention. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) stimulates bone formation. Ticagrelor and dipyridamole inhibit platelet function by inhibiting P2Y12 receptors and platelet phosphodiesterase, respectively, but share the capacity to inhibit cellular uptake of adenosine and thereby increase extracellular adenosine levels. Because dipyridamole promotes bone regeneration by an A2AR-mediated mechanism we determined whether ticagrelor could regulate the cells involved in bone homeostasis and regeneration in a murine model and whether inhibition of P2Y12 or indirect A2AR activation via adenosine was involved. Ticagrelor, dipyridamole and the active metabolite of clopidogrel (CAM), an alternative P2Y12 antagonist, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted osteoblast differentiation in vitro. A2AR blockade abrogated the effects of ticagrelor and dipyridamole on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation whereas A2BR blockade abrogated the effects of CAM. Ticagrelor and CAM, when applied to a 3-dimentional printed resorbable calcium-triphosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffold implanted in a calvarial bone defect, promoted significantly more bone regeneration than the scaffold alone and as much bone regeneration as BMP-2, a growth factor currently used to promote bone regeneration. These results suggest novel approaches to targeting adenosine receptors in the promotion of bone regeneration.-Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Reddy, V. S. R., Cheng, Q., Tovar, N., Coelho, P. G., Witek, L., Whatling, C., Cronstein, B. N. Ticagrelor regulates osteoblast and osteoclast function and promotes bone formation in vivo via an adenosine-dependent mechanism.


3-D HA/β-TCP scaffolds; A2AR; antiplatelet drugs; bone regeneration

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