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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2017 Apr;30(4):479-485. doi: 10.5713/ajas.16.0351. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on in vitro disappearance and gas production for feedlot cattle.

Author information

1
Shimizuko shiryo Co., Ltd., Ishinomaki, Miyagi, 981-3109, Japan.
2
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on in vitro dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD), gas production and fermentation pH were investigated for feedlot cattle.

METHODS:

Rumen fluid from four fistulated feedlot cattle fed a diet of 860 dry-rolled barley grain, 90 maize silage and 50 supplement g/kg DM was used as inoculum in 3 batch culture in vitro studies. In Experiment 1, dry-rolled barley and barley ground through a 1-, 2-, or 4-mm screen were used to obtain four substrates differing in particle size. In Experiment 2, cellulase enzyme (ENZ) from Acremonium cellulolyticus Y-94 was added to dry-rolled and ground barley (2-mm) at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/g, while Experiment 3 examined the interactions between microwaving (0, 30, and 60 s microwaving) and ENZ addition (0, 1, and 2 mg/g) using dry-rolled barley and 2-mm ground barley.

RESULTS:

In Experiment 1, decreasing particle size increased DMD and gas production, and decreased fermentation pH (p<0.01). The DMD (g/kg DM) of the dry-rolled barley after 24 h incubation was considerably lower (p<0.05) than that of the ground barley (119.1 dry-rolled barley versus 284.8 for 4-mm, 341.7 for 2-mm; and 358.6 for 1-mm). In Experiment 2, addition of ENZ to dry-rolled barley increased DMD (p<0.01) and tended to increase (p = 0.09) gas production and decreased (p<0.01) fermentation pH, but these variables were not affected by ENZ addition to ground barley. In Experiment 3, there were no interactions between microwaving and ENZ addition after microwaving for any of the variables. Microwaving had minimal effects (except decreased fermentation pH), but consistent with Experiment 2, ENZ addition increased (p<0.01) DMD and gas production, and decreased (p<0.05) fermentation pH of dry-rolled barley, but not ground barley.

CONCLUSION:

We conclude that cellulase enzymes can be used to increase the rumen disappearance of barley grain when it is coarsely processed as in the case of dry-rolled barley. However, microwaving of barley grain offered no further improvements in ruminal fermentation of barley grain.

KEYWORDS:

Barley Grain; Enzyme; Gas Production; In vitro Dry Matter Disappearance; Particle Size; Rumen Fluid

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