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Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:251-264. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.011. Epub 2016 Aug 7.

Human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds: Their role in reproductive systems, metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. A review.

Author information

1
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. Electronic address: monica.giulivo@unicatt.it.
2
Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: mlaqam@cid.csic.es.
3
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. Electronic address: ettore.capri@unicatt.it.
4
Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, 17003 Girona, Spain. Electronic address: dbcqam@cid.csic.es.

Abstract

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are released into the environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDCs have major risks for humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body (e.g. reproductive system, breast tissue, adipose tissue, pancreas, etc.). Due to the ubiquity of human exposure to these compounds the aim of this review is to describe the most recent data on the effects induced by phthalates, bisphenol A and parabens in a critical window of exposure: in utero, during pregnancy, infants, and children. The interactions and mechanisms of toxicity of EDCs in relation to human general health problems, especially those broadening the term of endocrine disruption to 'metabolic disruption', should be deeply investigated. These include endocrine disturbances, with particular reference to reproductive problems and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers, and metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes.

PMID:
27504873
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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