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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017 Mar;59(3):276-283. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.13217. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

Author information

1
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
3
Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Kungsgärdet Center, Uppsala, Sweden.
4
Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract

AIM:

To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions.

METHOD:

From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II.

RESULTS:

High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively.

INTERPRETATION:

Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible.

PMID:
27503703
DOI:
10.1111/dmcn.13217
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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