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J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Jan;31(1):94-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.07.023. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Ten-year hemoglobin A1c trajectories and outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Diabetes & Aging Study.

Author information

1
Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: nlaiteer@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu.
2
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA.
3
Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
4
Departments of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 2000, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Abstract

AIMS:

To classify trajectories of long term HbA1c values in patients after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and examine each trajectory's associations with subsequent microvascular and macrovascular events and mortality.

METHODS:

A longitudinal follow-up of 28,016 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was conducted. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify ten-year HbA1c trajectories. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess how HbA1c trajectories were associated with events (microvascular and macrovascular) and mortality.

RESULTS:

We identified 5 HbA1c trajectories: "low stable" (82.5%), "moderate increasing late" (5.1%), "high decreasing early" (4.9%), "moderate peaking late" (4.1%) and "moderate peaking early" (3.3%). After adjusting for average HbA1c, compared to the low stable trajectory, all non-stable trajectories were associated with higher incidences of microvascular events (hazard ratio (HR) range, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.08-1.53) (high decreasing early) to 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20-1.75) (moderate peaking early)). The high decreasing early trajectory was associated with an increased mortality risk (HR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03-1.58)). Trajectories were not associated with macrovascular events.

CONCLUSIONS:

Non-stable HbA1c trajectories were associated with greater risk of microvascular events and mortality. These findings suggest a potential benefit of early diabetes detection, prioritizing good glycemic control, and maintaining control over time.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Glycemic control; Legacy effect; Microvascular disease; Mortality

PMID:
27503405
PMCID:
PMC5209280
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.07.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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