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Cell Rep. 2016 Aug 16;16(7):1974-87. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.06.104. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Interneuronal Transfer and Distal Action of Tetanus Toxin and Botulinum Neurotoxins A and D in Central Neurons.

Author information

1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
2
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
3
Department of Neuroscience, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.
4
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA. Electronic address: chapman@wisc.edu.

Abstract

Recent reports suggest that botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) A, which is widely used clinically to inhibit neurotransmission, can spread within networks of neurons to have distal effects, but this remains controversial. Moreover, it is not known whether other members of this toxin family are transferred between neurons. Here, we investigate the potential distal effects of BoNT/A, BoNT/D, and tetanus toxin (TeNT), using central neurons grown in microfluidic devices. Toxins acted upon the neurons that mediated initial entry, but all three toxins were also taken up, via an alternative pathway, into non-acidified organelles that mediated retrograde transport to the somato-dendritic compartment. Toxins were then released into the media, where they entered and exerted their effects upon upstream neurons. These findings directly demonstrate that these agents undergo transcytosis and interneuronal transfer in an active form, resulting in long-distance effects.

PMID:
27498860
PMCID:
PMC4988880
DOI:
10.1016/j.celrep.2016.06.104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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