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Curr Biol. 2016 Oct 10;26(19):2659-2666. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.057. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey; Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18C, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey.
4
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18C, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.
5
Department of Anthropology, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara, Turkey.
6
Department of Prehistory, Istanbul University, Laleli, 34134 Istanbul, Turkey.
7
Department of Archaeology, Classics, and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7WZ, UK.
8
Department of Health Informatics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey.
9
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18C, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden.
10
School of Social Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
11
Department of Archaeology, Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 İncivez, Zonguldak, Turkey.
12
Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address: togan@metu.edu.tr.
13
Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address: msomel@metu.edu.tr.
14
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18C, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: jan.stora@ofl.su.se.
15
Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.
16
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18C, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: anders.gotherstrom@arklab.su.se.

Abstract

The archaeological documentation of the development of sedentary farming societies in Anatolia is not yet mirrored by a genetic understanding of the human populations involved, in contrast to the spread of farming in Europe [1-3]. Sedentary farming communities emerged in parts of the Fertile Crescent during the tenth millennium and early ninth millennium calibrated (cal) BC and had appeared in central Anatolia by 8300 cal BC [4]. Farming spread into west Anatolia by the early seventh millennium cal BC and quasi-synchronously into Europe, although the timing and process of this movement remain unclear. Using genome sequence data that we generated from nine central Anatolian Neolithic individuals, we studied the transition period from early Aceramic (Pre-Pottery) to the later Pottery Neolithic, when farming expanded west of the Fertile Crescent. We find that genetic diversity in the earliest farmers was conspicuously low, on a par with European foraging groups. With the advent of the Pottery Neolithic, genetic variation within societies reached levels later found in early European farmers. Our results confirm that the earliest Neolithic central Anatolians belonged to the same gene pool as the first Neolithic migrants spreading into Europe. Further, genetic affinities between later Anatolian farmers and fourth to third millennium BC Chalcolithic south Europeans suggest an additional wave of Anatolian migrants, after the initial Neolithic spread but before the Yamnaya-related migrations. We propose that the earliest farming societies demographically resembled foragers and that only after regional gene flow and rising heterogeneity did the farming population expansions into Europe occur.

KEYWORDS:

Anatolia; Neolithic; ancient DNA; archaeogenomics; genetic diversity; population genetics

PMID:
27498567
PMCID:
PMC5069350
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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