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Trends Biochem Sci. 2016 Oct;41(10):834-846. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2016.07.009. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Circadian Oscillators: Around the Transcription-Translation Feedback Loop and on to Output.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Electronic address: hurlej2@rpi.edu.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.
3
Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. Electronic address: jay.c.dunlap@dartmouth.edu.

Abstract

From cyanobacteria to mammals, organisms have evolved timing mechanisms to adapt to environmental changes in order to optimize survival and improve fitness. To anticipate these regular daily cycles, many organisms manifest ∼24h cell-autonomous oscillations that are sustained by transcription-translation-based or post-transcriptional negative-feedback loops that control a wide range of biological processes. With an eye to identifying emerging common themes among cyanobacterial, fungal, and animal clocks, some major recent developments in the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate these oscillators and their output are discussed. These include roles for antisense transcription, intrinsically disordered proteins, codon bias in clock genes, and a more focused discussion of post-transcriptional and translational regulation as a part of both the oscillator and output.

KEYWORDS:

PTO; TTFL; antisense.; clock; intrinsically disordered protein ;codon bias

PMID:
27498225
PMCID:
PMC5045794
DOI:
10.1016/j.tibs.2016.07.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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