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BMJ Open. 2016 Aug 5;6(8):e011000. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-011000.

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Centre for Chronic Conditions and Injuries, Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India.
2
Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

India.

METHODS:

Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15-49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics.

CONCLUSIONS:

HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting.

KEYWORDS:

India; NFHS-3; diabetes; eclampsia; preeclampsia

PMID:
27496230
PMCID:
PMC4985909
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2015-011000
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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