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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Aug;71(8):2079-82. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw259.

Azole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus: beneficial or biased?

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands paul.verweij@radboudumc.nl.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
4
Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital (CWZ), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Azole resistance is a growing concern with Aspergillus fumigatus, and may cause increased mortality in patients with azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis (IA). Microbial surveillance has been recognized as a fundamental component of resistance management. Surveillance information may be used to inform decisions regarding health services and research funding allocation, to guide local infection control in hospitals and communities, and to direct local and national drug policies and guidelines. Azole resistance frequencies have been based on screening of unselected A. fumigatus isolates, on the number of azole-resistant cases within a cohort of patients with a specific Aspergillus disease, or on analysis of patients within a specific risk group. The various surveillance approaches differ in their aims, as well as in their associated advantages and drawbacks. Nevertheless, a wide range of azole resistance frequencies has been reported, partly due to the denominator used. As most azole resistance is believed to develop in the environment and, as a consequence, azole-naive patients may present with azole-resistant aspergillosis, experts recommended a 10% resistance frequency threshold above which the standard treatment choice, i.e. voriconazole, should be reconsidered. We believe that local resistance rates based on Aspergillus disease and/or risk group should be leading for decisions regarding empirical antifungal therapy in specific units. In addition, patient factors should be considered, such as admission to the ICU. Collecting valid surveillance data may be challenging in azole resistance due to numerous factors that present potential biases. Surveillance research may benefit from further standardization, which may be facilitated through the recently instituted International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance Working Group.

PMID:
27494831
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkw259
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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