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Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2017 Mar;43(2):132-145. doi: 10.1080/00952990.2016.1193511. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

The co-occurrence of nicotine and other substance use and addiction among youth and adults in the United States: implications for research, practice, and policy.

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a The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse , New York , NY , USA.
b Department of Community Health and Social Medicine, Sophie Davis Biomedical Education/CUNY School of Medicine , The City College of New York , New York , NY , USA.
c Department of Psychiatry , Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven , CT , USA.



The increasing popularity of non-cigarette nicotine products, especially among youth, highlights the need for greater attention to their potential risks, including nicotine addiction and other substance use and addiction.


To examine the extent to which nicotine product use co-occurs with other substance use and addiction among youth and adults, describe the demographic groups and types of nicotine products associated with an increased risk of such co-occurrence, and discuss implications for research, prevention, clinical practice, and policy.


Analyzing 2014 data from two nationally representative US surveys, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, we examined the co-occurrence between nicotine product use and alcohol and other drug use and addiction.


Individuals of all ages who reported using nicotine products of any kind were significantly more likely than nonusers to report alcohol, marijuana, other drug, and poly-substance use and to meet diagnostic criteria for a substance-use disorder. Users of multiple nicotine products generally were the most likely to engage in alcohol and other drug use and to be addicted to these other substances.


The substantial co-occurrence of all forms of nicotine use and other substance use and addiction underscores the need to control the growing use of non-cigarette nicotine products among youth and to incorporate all forms of nicotine product use into substance use and addiction research, prevention, clinical practice, and policy efforts.


Cigarettes; co-occurrence; electronic cigarettes; nicotine; substance use disorders; tobacco

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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