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J Psychiatr Res. 2016 Nov;82:126-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.07.017. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Pre- and perinatal complications in relation to Tourette syndrome and co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

1
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Genetics and the Human Genetics Institute of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: abdulkadir@dls.rutgers.edu.
2
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Genetics and the Human Genetics Institute of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
3
Yale Child Study Center and Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
4
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
5
Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA.
7
Haga Teaching Hospital, Department of Neurology, The Hague, The Netherlands.
8
Yulius Academy and Division Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Yulius Mental Health Organization, Barendrecht, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic Universitari, Barcelona, Spain.
10
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
11
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
12
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
13
Evelina London Children's Hospital GSTT, Kings Health Partners AHSC, London, UK.
14
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
15
Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, South Korea.
16
De Bascule, AMC Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
17
Yonsei Bom Clinic, South Korea.
18
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
19
Korea Institute for Children's Social Development, Seoul, South Korea.
20
MyongJi Hospital, Koyang, South Korea.
21
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
22
Triversum, Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.
23
University of Ulm, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ulm, Germany.
24
Sección de Neuropediatría, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
25
Yulius Academy and Division Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Yulius Mental Health Organization, Barendrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
26
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands.
27
Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
28
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic Universitari Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIPABS) and Centro de Investigacion en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Spain.
29
Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
30
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, TU Dresden, Germany.
31
University Hospital Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
32
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Groningen, The Netherlands.
33
National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-si, South Korea.
34
Accare, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands.
35
Youth Division, Altrecht, Institute for Mental Health, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
36
Admiraal De Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Department of Neurology, Goes, The Netherlands.
37
University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

Pre- and perinatal complications have been implicated in the onset and clinical expression of Tourette syndrome albeit with considerable inconsistencies across studies. Also, little is known about their role in co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with a tic disorder. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of pre- and perinatal complications in relation to the presence and symptom severity of chronic tic disorder and co-occurring OCD and ADHD using data of 1113 participants from the Tourette International Collaborative Genetics study. This study included 586 participants with a chronic tic disorder and 527 unaffected family controls. We controlled for age and sex differences by creating propensity score matched subsamples for both case-control and within-case analyses. We found that premature birth (OR = 1.72) and morning sickness requiring medical attention (OR = 2.57) were associated with the presence of a chronic tic disorder. Also, the total number of pre- and perinatal complications was higher in those with a tic disorder (OR = 1.07). Furthermore, neonatal complications were related to the presence (OR = 1.46) and severity (b = 2.27) of co-occurring OCD and also to ADHD severity (b = 1.09). Delivery complications were only related to co-occurring OCD (OR = 1.49). We conclude that early exposure to adverse situations during pregnancy is related to the presence of chronic tic disorders. Exposure at a later stage, at birth or during the first weeks of life, appears to be associated with co-occurring OCD and ADHD.

KEYWORDS:

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; Delivery; Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Pregnancy; Prenatal; Tourette syndrome

PMID:
27494079
PMCID:
PMC5026935
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.07.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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