Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Science. 2016 Aug 5;353(6299):aad5147. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5147.

Diverse evolutionary roots and mechanistic variations of the CRISPR-Cas systems.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, 6703 HB Wageningen, Netherlands.
2
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.
3
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
4
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, 6703 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. john.vanderoost@wur.nl.

Abstract

Adaptive immunity had been long thought of as an exclusive feature of animals. However, the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas defense system, present in almost half of prokaryotic genomes, proves otherwise. Because of the everlasting parasite-host arms race, CRISPR-Cas has rapidly evolved through horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules, resulting in extreme structural and functional diversity. CRISPR-Cas systems are divided into two distinct classes that each consist of three types and multiple subtypes. We discuss recent advances in CRISPR-Cas research that reveal elaborate molecular mechanisms and provide for a plausible scenario of CRISPR-Cas evolution. We also briefly describe the latest developments of a wide range of CRISPR-based applications.

PMID:
27493190
DOI:
10.1126/science.aad5147
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center