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Transpl Infect Dis. 2016 Oct;18(5):706-713. doi: 10.1111/tid.12584. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

Frequency and risks associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after pediatric solid organ transplantation: a single-center retrospective review.

Author information

1
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
2
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. lara.danziger-isakov@cchmc.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Morbidity and mortality related to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased, but epidemiology and risk factors within pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are uncertain.

METHODS:

A retrospective cohort study of SOT recipients age ≤18 years at transplantation from 2010 to 2013 was performed. Patients with CDI were compared with matched CDI-negative controls with diarrhea.

RESULTS:

Of 202 patients, the majority were male (58%) and Caucasian (77%). Kidney (42%) was the most common organ transplanted, followed by liver (38%), heart (17%), and multivisceral/intestine (3%). Age ranged from 3 weeks to 18 years (median 4.7 years, mean 6.6; interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-11.2). In 104 SOT recipients, at least 1 unformed stool was tested; 25 patients were positive for CDI. Most testing occurred by 60 days post transplant (mean 164, median 57, IQR 14-227). First negative tests occurred concurrently (mean 153, median 54, IQR 13-214) to the 25 patients with CDI (mean 199, median 65, IQR 32-238). In univariable analyses, age, gender, ethnicity, obesity, and calcineurin inhibitor choice were not associated with CDI. Liver recipients were more likely to have CDI (18.4% liver, 4.7% kidney, 8.8% heart, P < 0.01). Twenty CDI patients were matched to 35 controls. In multivariable analyses, neither recent hospitalization nor antibiotic duration or intensity was associated with CDI. Acid-blockade appeared protective (risk ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.78).

CONCLUSIONS:

CDI occurs in 12% of pediatric SOT recipients, but 24% of those tested with diarrhea were positive. In patients with diarrhea, prior hospitalization and antibiotic duration or intensity were not associated with CDI.

KEYWORDS:

Clostridium difficile ; diarrhea; pediatric transplantation; risk factors

PMID:
27492796
DOI:
10.1111/tid.12584
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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