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Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Oct;15(10):964-9. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2016.07.019. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

The viral paradigm in type 1 diabetes: Who are the main suspects?

Author information

1
Type 1 Diabetes Center, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
2
Type 1 Diabetes Center, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Novo Nordisk Diabetes Research & Development Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: matthias@lji.org.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Although genetic predisposition plays an important role in T1D development, studies of identical twins suggest that environmental factors such as viruses and other pathogens may be critical triggers either through direct cytolytic effect and gradual beta cell destruction, or by bystander activation of the immune system. In addition, viruses may circumvent the host immune response and have the capacity to establish chronic lifelong infections. The association of various viral infections with the induction of T1D has been extensively studied at the serological and epidemiological level. However, there is still little evidence from studies of human pancreas to confirm their presence or a causal role in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we identify possible suspects for viral triggers of disease and explain their potential roles in the "viral paradigm" of T1D.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; Environmental factors; Type 1 diabetes; Viruses

PMID:
27491567
DOI:
10.1016/j.autrev.2016.07.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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