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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Dec;73(24):4611-4622. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Environmental factors in autoimmune diseases and their role in multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
University Hospital Erlangen at the Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU) Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
2
Translational Immunology, Department of Clinical Pathobiochemistry, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
3
VIB Laboratory of Translational Immunomodulation & Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
4
Department of Neurology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
5
Experimental and Clinical Research Center, An Institutional Cooperation Between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
6
Translational Immunology, Department of Clinical Pathobiochemistry, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany. markus.kleinewietfeld@vib-uhasselt.be.
7
Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Dresden, Germany. markus.kleinewietfeld@vib-uhasselt.be.
8
VIB Laboratory of Translational Immunomodulation & Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium. markus.kleinewietfeld@vib-uhasselt.be.

Abstract

An increase in autoimmune diseases poses a socioeconomic challenge worldwide. Predisposing genetic risk has been identified, yet environmental factors make up a significant part of the risk in disease initiation and propagation. Next to improved hygiene and a gross reduction of infections, changes in dietary habits are one of the most evident Western lifestyle factors potentially associated with the increase in autoimmune diseases. Growing evidence suggests that particularly a typical 'Western diet', rich in saturated fat and salt and related pathologies can have a profound impact on local and systemic immune responses under physiologic and autoimmune conditions such as in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we discuss recent findings on environmental factors influencing autoimmunity with an emphasis on the impact of 'Western diet' on immune homeostasis and gut microbiota in MS.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; CD4+ T cells; Environmental risk factors; Foxp3+ Tregs; MS; Microbiota; Th17 cells

PMID:
27491297
PMCID:
PMC5097114
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-016-2311-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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