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Clin Exp Vaccine Res. 2016 Jul;5(2):117-24. doi: 10.7774/cevr.2016.5.2.117. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

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College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Korea.
Research Unit, Green Cross Veterinary Products, Yongin, Korea.


This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health.


Disease transmission; H3N2 subtype; H3N8 subtype; Infectious; Influenza A virus; Influenza vaccine

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