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NMR Biomed. 2016 Oct;29(10):1391-402. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3583. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

The bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid directly modulates metabolic pathways in white adipose tissue in vitro: insight into how bile acids decrease obesity.

Author information

1
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
2
Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, Department of Life Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
3
Center for Functional Ecology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
4
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. palmeira@ci.uc.pt.
5
Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, Department of Life Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. palmeira@ci.uc.pt.

Abstract

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and associated pathologies, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations, are increasingly escalating morbidity and mortality. Despite intensive study, no effective simple treatment for these conditions exists. As such, the need for go-to drugs is serious. Bile acids (BAs) present the possibility of reversing these problems, as various in vivo studies and clinical trials have shown significant effects with regard to weight and obesity reduction, insulin sensitivity restoration and cardiovascular improvements. However, the mechanism of action of BA-induced metabolic improvement has yet to be fully established. The currently most accepted model involves non-shivering thermogenesis for energy waste, but this is disputed. As such, we propose to determine whether the BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) can exert anti-obesogenic effects in vitro, independent of thermogenic brown adipose tissue activation. By exposing differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes to high glucose and CDCA, we demonstrate that this BA has anti-obesity effects in vitro. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of metabolic pathways clearly indicates an improvement in metabolic status, as these cells become more oxidative rather than glycolytic, which may be associated with an increase in fatty acid oxidation. Our work demonstrates that CDCA-induced metabolic alterations occur in white and brown adipocytes and are not totally dependent on endocrine/nervous system signaling, as thought until now. Furthermore, future exploration of the mechanisms behind these effects will undoubtedly reveal interesting targets for clinical modulation.

KEYWORDS:

3 T3-L1 white adipocytes; bile acids; chenodeoxycholic acid; nuclear magnetic resonance; obesity

PMID:
27488269
DOI:
10.1002/nbm.3583
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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