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Zebrafish. 2016 Dec;13(6):481-488. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

l-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine as a Potential Radioprotective Agent in Zebrafish Embryo Model.

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1 Attosecond Light Pulse Source, ELI-HU Nonprofit Ltd., Szeged, Hungary .
2 MTA-SE NAP B Cognitive Translational Behavioural Pharmacology Group, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary .
3 Institute of Surgical Research, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary .
4 Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary .
5 Institute of Aquaculture and Environmental Safety, Szent István University of Gödöllő , Gödöllő, Hungary .
6 Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Szent István University , Budapest, Hungary .


This work establishes the zebrafish embryo model for ionizing radiation (IR) modifier research and also evaluates the protective effect of l-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC). Embryos were exposed to a single-fraction whole-body gamma irradiation (5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) at different postfertilization time points and were serially assessed for viability and macro- and micromorphologic abnormalities. After toxicity evaluation, 194 μM of GPC was added for certain groups with 3-h incubation before the radiation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression changes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A higher sensitivity could be observed at earlier stages of the embryogenesis. The lethal dose (LD50) for 6 hours postfertilization (hpf) embryos was 15 Gy and for 24 hpf was 20 Gy on day 7, respectively. GPC administration resulted in a significant improvement in both the distortion rate and survival of the 24 hpf embryos. Qualitative evaluation of the histological changes confirmed the protective effect of GPC. IL-1β and NF-κB overexpression due to 10 Gy irradiation was also reduced by GPC. GPC exhibited promising radioprotective effects in our zebrafish embryo model, decreasing the irradiation-induced morphological damage and lethality with significant reduction of IR-caused pro-inflammatory activation.


L-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine; NFκB; radiobiology; radioprotection; zebrafish

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