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Front Neurol. 2016 Jul 18;7:114. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00114. eCollection 2016.

Intrusive Thoughts Elicited by Direct Electrical Stimulation during Stereo-Electroencephalography.

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Department of Neurology, University Emergency Hospital , Bucharest , Romania.
Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; Epilepsy Center, University Hospital of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; FHC Inc., Bowdoin, ME, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, Bagdasar-Arseni Emergency Hospital , Bucharest , Romania.
Department of Physics, University of Bucharest , Bucharest , Romania.
Department of Neurological Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami , Miami, FL , USA.
Department of Neurology, University Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; Department of Neurology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.


Cortical direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a method of brain mapping used during invasive presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. Intellectual auras like intrusive thoughts, also known as forced thinking (FT), have been reported during frontal seizures. However, there are few reports on FT obtained during DES in frontal cortex. We report three cases in which we obtained intrusive thoughts while stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the white matter in the prefrontal region. In order to highlight the effective connectivity that might explain this clinical response, we have analyzed cortico-cortical potentials evoked by single pulse electrical stimulation.


brain connectivity; electrical stimulation; epilepsy; forced thinking; prefrontal cortex

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