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Subcell Biochem. 2016;79:377-414. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_15.

Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

Author information

1
Group of Nutrigenomics and Obesity, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km 7.5. 07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. luisabonet@uib.es.
2
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Palma de Mallorca, Spain. luisabonet@uib.es.
3
Metabolism and Diabetes, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32207, USA.
4
Group of Nutrigenomics and Obesity, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km 7.5. 07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
5
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Abstract

Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

KEYWORDS:

Adiposity; Apocarotenoids; Carotenoids; Energy metabolism; Human epidemiological studies; Obesity; Retinoids; Vitamin A metabolism; White adipose tissue browning

PMID:
27485231
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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