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Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Bradyarrhythmias: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management.

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Biobehavioral Health Science Division, The University of Arizona College of Nursing, 1305 North Martin Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0203, USA. Electronic address:


Bradyarrhythmias are common clinical findings consisting of physiologic and pathologic conditions (sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular [AV] conduction disturbances). Bradyarrhythmias can be benign, requiring no treatment; however, acute unstable bradycardia can lead to cardiac arrest. In patients with confirmed or suspected bradycardia, a thorough history and physical examination should include possible causes of sinoatrial node dysfunction or AV block. Management of bradycardia is based on the severity of symptoms, the underlying causes, presence of potentially reversible causes, presence of adverse signs, and risk of progression to asystole. Pharmacologic therapy and/or pacing are used to manage unstable or symptomatic bradyarrhythmias.


Atrioventricular block; Bradyarrhythmia; Sinus arrest; Sinus node dysfunction; Tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome

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