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J Pediatr. 2016 Oct;177:133-139.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.045. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Breast Milk Feeding, Brain Development, and Neurocognitive Outcomes: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study in Infants Born at Less Than 30 Weeks' Gestation.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address: mbrown9@partners.org.
2
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
3
St. John's College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
4
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
5
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Royal Women's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
6
Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the associations of breast milk intake after birth with neurological outcomes at term equivalent and 7 years of age in very preterm infants

STUDY DESIGN:

We studied 180 infants born at <30 weeks' gestation or <1250 grams birth weight enrolled in the Victorian Infant Brain Studies cohort from 2001-2003. We calculated the number of days on which infants received >50% of enteral intake as breast milk from 0-28 days of life. Outcomes included brain volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent and 7 years of age, and cognitive (IQ, reading, mathematics, attention, working memory, language, visual perception) and motor testing at 7 years of age. We adjusted for age, sex, social risk, and neonatal illness in linear regression.

RESULTS:

A greater number of days on which infants received >50% breast milk was associated with greater deep nuclear gray matter volume at term equivalent age (0.15 cc/d; 95% CI, 0.05-0.25); and with better performance at age 7 years of age on IQ (0.5 points/d; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), mathematics (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), working memory (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), and motor function (0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.2) tests. No differences in regional brain volumes at 7 years of age in relation to breast milk intake were observed.

CONCLUSION:

Predominant breast milk feeding in the first 28 days of life was associated with a greater deep nuclear gray matter volume at term equivalent age and better IQ, academic achievement, working memory, and motor function at 7 years of age in very preterm infants.

KEYWORDS:

academic achievement; intelligence; magnetic resonance imaging; memory; preterm infant

PMID:
27480198
PMCID:
PMC5037020
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.045
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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