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Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct;83:746-754. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.07.035. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Multifaceted effects of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases: A review.

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Department of Pharmacology, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 107, Karnataka, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 107, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:


Aluminium (Al) is the most common metal and widely distributed in our environment. Al was first isolated as an element in 1827, and its use began only after 1886. Al is widely used for industrial applications and consumer products. Apart from these it is also used in cooking utensils and in pharmacological agents, including antacids and antiperspirants from which the element usually enters into the human body. Evidence for the neurotoxicity of Al is described in various studies, but still the exact mechanism of Al toxicity is not known. However, the evidence suggests that the Al can potentiate oxidative stress and inflammatory events and finally leads to cell death. Al is considered as a well-established neurotoxin and have a link between the exposure and development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, Gulf war syndrome and Parkinsonism. Here, we review the detailed possible pathogenesis of Al neurotoxicity. This review summarizes Al induced events likewise oxidative stress, cell mediated toxicity, apoptosis, inflammatory events in the brain, glutamate toxicity, effects on calcium homeostasis, gene expression and Al induced Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation. Apart from these we also discussed animal models that are commonly used for Al induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration studies. These models help to find out a better way to treat and prevent the progression in Al induced neurodegenerative diseases.


Aluminium; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Neurodegeneration; Neurotoxicity

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