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Springerplus. 2016 Jul 19;5(1):1120. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-2554-1. eCollection 2016.

The role of school desk on the learning of graphic skills in early childhood education in Brazil.

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University of the São Paulo City (UNICID), Rua Cesário Galero, 448/475, São Paulo, SP 03071-000 Brazil.
Department of Pedagogy of Human Movement, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Melo Morais, 65, São Paulo, SP 05508-030 Brazil.


The role of two different layouts of school furniture was investigated in the pattern legibility and spatial-temporal parameters of a graphic skill acquisition. Thirty children from the first grade of elementary school (mean age = 6 years) practiced a graphic task according to a criterion figure. They were assigned to two groups, Group of Fixed School Desk (GF) and Group with Adjustable School Desk (GA). Each child practiced the task on a digital tablet for 25 trials. The software Movalyser 2.3 processed the data from which the following measures were obtained: pattern legibility, linear spatial error and speed of execution. Two expert teachers also judged legibility. Children in the GA showed more number of legible patterns, they were slower to complete the task but they were more accurate in its reproduction. The adjustable school desk facilitates the acquisition of legible graphic patterns. Since stable graphic skills are positively correlated to the production of creative texts, studies unraveling the role of school desks to facilitate handwriting and drawing skills will contribute ultimately children's literacy and overall educational development.


Early childhood education; Graphic skill; School desk; Skill acquisition

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