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Energy Environ Sci. 2016 Jun 8;9(6):1989-1997. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Lausanne CH-1015 , Switzerland . Email: michael.saliba@epfl.ch; Group for Molecular Engineering of Functional Materials , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Sion CH-1951 , Switzerland.
2
Advanced Research Division , Materials Research Laboratory , Panasonic Corporation , 1006 Kadoma , Kadoma City , Osaka 571-8501 , Japan.
3
Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Lausanne CH-1015 , Switzerland . Email: michael.saliba@epfl.ch.
4
Laboratory of Photomolecular Science (LSPM) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) , 1015 Lausanne , Switzerland.
5
Group for Molecular Engineering of Functional Materials , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Sion CH-1951 , Switzerland.

Abstract

Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics.

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